Chloramphenicol, lincomycin and oxytetracycline disposition in calves with experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis.
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The effects of pneumonia on the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol, lincomycin, and oxytetracycline were evaluated in two-month-old calves. Pneumonia was induced by injection of Pasteurella haemolytica cultures directly through the thoracic wall into each lung. Six days prior to induction of pneumonia, the antibiotics were administered in a single i.v. dose. The antibiotics were administered again 48 (i.v.), 60 and 72 h (i.m.) following injection of P. haemolytica. The pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol (25 mg/kg) and lincomycin (10 mg/kg) were not significantly different in calves with pneumonia. The hybrid rate constant beta for oxytetracycline was increased in calves with pneumonia from 0.0034 +/- 0.0003/min to 0.0048 +/- 0.0007/min between 2 h and 8 h. Thus the elimination half-life in serum was shortened from 212.4 +/- 20.3 min to 149.3 +/- 19.5 min. In addition, there was an apparent but not statistically significant decrease in K12 with pneumonia. These findings accentuate the need for observance of 12-h dose intervals with oxytetracycline.