Comparison Of Four Anti-Avian IgY Secondary Antibodies Used In Western Blot And Dot-Blot ELISA To Detect Avian Bornavirus Antibodies In Four Different Bird Species.
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PURPOSE: This study evaluated the specificity of different avian secondary antibodies used in Western blot and dot-blot ELISA to detect avian bornavirus antibodies in bird plasma. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from: two Blue and gold macaws, one positive and one negative for avian bornavirus by RT-PCR; a Cockatiel and a Monk parakeet prior to and following experimental infection; and, two Mallards, one positive and one negative for avian bornavirus by RT-PCR Samples were analyzed by Western blot and dot-blot ELISA that incorporated recombinant avian bornavirus nucleoprotein as the target analyte. Four species-specific anti-IgY secondary antibodies were used in the assays: goat anti-macaw IgY, goat anti-bird IgY, goat anti-duck IgY, and rabbit anti-chicken IgY. RESULTS: In the Western blot, anti-macaw IgY secondary antibody produced strong signals with Blue and gold macaw and Cockatiel positive plasma, but no signal with Mallard positive plasma. Anti-bird IgY secondary antibody produced strong signals with Blue and gold macaw, Cockatiel, and Mallard positive plasma. Anti-duck and anti-chicken IgY secondary antibody produced a strong and moderate signal, respectively, only with Mallard positive plasma. In the dot-blot ELISA, there was a distinct and significant difference (P<0.05) in the signal intensity between the different secondary antibodies within a bird species. Anti-macaw IgY secondary antibody produced significantly (P<0.05) stronger signals than the other secondary antibodies in Blue and gold macaw, Cockatiel, and Monk parakeet positive plasma, while anti-duck IgY secondary antibody produced significantly (P<0.05) stronger signals than the other secondary antibodies in Mallard positive plasma. CONCLUSION: In testing psittacines with immunoassays, and especially in assays that incorporate short incubation reaction times such as a dot-blot ELISA, species-specific anti-IgY secondary antibodies provided more accurate results.