Oxylipins Other Than Jasmonic Acid Are Xylem-Resident Signals Regulating Systemic Resistance Induced by Trichoderma virens in Maize. Academic Article uri icon


  • Multiple long-distance signals have been identified for pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance, but mobile signals for symbiont-induced systemic resistance (ISR) are less well understood. We used ISR-positive and -negative mutants of maize (Zea mays) and the beneficial fungus Trichoderma virens and identified 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and -ketol of octadecadienoic acid (KODA) as important ISR signals. We show that a maize 13-lipoxygenase mutant, lox10, colonized by the wild-type T. virens (TvWT) lacked ISR response against Colletotrichum graminicola but instead displayed induced systemic susceptibility. Oxylipin profiling of xylem sap from T. virens-treated plants revealed that 12-OPDA and KODA levels correlated with ISR. Transfusing sap supplemented with 12-OPDA or KODA increased receiver plant resistance in a dose-dependent manner, with 12-OPDA restoring ISR of lox10 plants treated with TvWT or T. virens sm1, a mutant unable to induce ISR. Unexpectedly, jasmonic acid (JA) was not involved, as the JA-deficient opr7 opr8 mutant plants retained the capacity for T. virens-induced ISR. Transcriptome analysis of TvWT-treated maize B73 revealed upregulation of 12-OPDA biosynthesis and OPDA-responsive genes but downregulation of JA biosynthesis and JA response genes. We propose a model that differential regulation of 12-OPDA and JA in response to T. virens colonization results in ISR induction.

published proceedings

  • Plant Cell

altmetric score

  • 40.33

author list (cited authors)

  • Wang, K., Borrego, E. J., Kenerley, C. M., & Kolomiets, M. V.

citation count

  • 58

complete list of authors

  • Wang, Ken-Der||Borrego, Eli J||Kenerley, Charles M||Kolomiets, Michael V

publication date

  • January 2020