The built environment serves as a dynamic interface through which human society and the ecosystem interact and influence each other. Understanding this interdependence is a key to understanding sustainability as it applies to civil engineering. There is a growing consensus that delivering a sustainable built environment starts with incorporating sustainability thoughts at the planning and design stages of an infrastructure construction project. Geotechnical engineering can significantly influence the sustainability of infrastructure development because of its early position in the construction process. In this paper, the scope of geotechnical engineering towards sustainable development of civil infrastructure is reviewed. The philosophies and definitions of sustainability as applicable to geotechnical engineering are discussed. A comprehensive review of the research and case studies performed in geotechnical engineering, in relation to sustainable development, is presented in an effort to outline the scope and goals of sustainable geotechnical engineering.