SPATIO-TEMPORAL SHORT-TERM WIND FORECAST: A CALIBRATED REGIME-SWITCHING METHOD.
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Accurate short-term forecasts are indispensable for the integration of wind energy in power grids. On a wind farm, local wind conditions exhibit sizeable variations at a fine temporal resolution. Existing statistical models may capture the in-sample variations in wind behavior, but are often shortsighted to those occurring in the near future, that is, in the forecast horizon. The calibrated regime-switching method proposed in this paper introduces an action of regime dependent calibration on the predictand (here the wind speed variable), which helps correct the bias resulting from out-of-sample variations in wind behavior. This is achieved by modeling the calibration as a function of two elements: the wind regime at the time of the forecast (and the calibration is therefore regime dependent), and the runlength, which is the time elapsed since the last observed regime change. In addition to regime-switching dynamics, the proposed model also accounts for other features of wind fields: spatio-temporal dependencies, transport effect of wind and nonstationarity. Using one year of turbine-specific wind data, we show that the calibrated regime-switching method can offer a wide margin of improvement over existing forecasting methods in terms of both wind speed and power.