Development and validation of an ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method to determine the bioavailability of warfarin and its major metabolite 7‐hydroxy warfarin in rats dosed with oral formulations containing different polymorphic forms Academic Article uri icon


  • A simple, sensitive and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of warfarin and 7-hydroxy warfarin in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Animals were administered a single dose of warfarin sodium formulations (crystalline and amorphous) at 12 mg/kg via oral gavage and blood was drawn over a 96-h time course. Sample process recoveries, matrix effect and analyte stability were determined. The linearity for warfarin and 7-hydroxy warfarin was from 5 to 2000 ng/mL in blank SD rat plasma. Correlation coefficients (r2 ) for standard calibration curves were >.98 and analytes quantified within ±15% of target at all calibrator concentrations. The average percent accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day were 93.7%-113.8% and ≤12.1%, respectively, for warfarin and 7-hydroxy warfarin, across the quality control standards (5, 10, 500, 1800 and 2000 ng/mL). Acceptable analytical recovery (>55%) was achieved with process efficiencies >41.5% and matrix effects <139.9% over the analytical range. Both analytes were stable in stock solution, autosampler, benchtop and three cycles of freeze-thaw with percent accuracy ≥90.2% and precision (percent relative standard deviation) ≤14%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pre-clinical bioavailability study of crystalline and amorphous warfarin sodium formulations in SD rats.

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Shakleya, D., Rahman, Z., & Faustino, P. J.

citation count

  • 0

publication date

  • December 2019