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© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This chapter aims to provide an overview on the contribution of cholangiocytes during liver regeneration. We begin with a brief background on the structure and function of the biliary epithelium followed by a discussion on the heterogeneity of cholangiocytes along the length of the biliary epithelium. We then discuss the three types of biliary proliferative processes into Type I (typical), Type II (atypical), and Type III (oval cell) proliferation. Specifically, we have discussed the different types of liver injuries and their effect on both large and small cholangiocytes through specific signaling mechanism. Subsequently, we discuss the various factors, such as gastrointestinal hormones, angiogenic factors, bile acids, neurotransmitters, and inflammatory cytokines that play important roles in the heterogeneous proliferative responses of cholangiocytes during liver injury. We discuss the novel molecules, such as microRNAs, that are being increasingly found essential in the regulation of biliary proliferation. Additional discussion on the contribution of the peribiliary glands on the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation has been included to provide a comprehensive view of all the factors influencing response to liver injury. Lastly, we conclude with the relevance of biliary regeneration in human liver diseases to emphasize on the need for continuing research in this field for potential diagnostic purposes.
author list (cited authors)
Ray, D., Han, Y., Maroni, L., Marzioni, M., Meng, F., Alpini, G., & Glaser, S
complete list of authors
Ray, Debolina||Han, Yuyan||Maroni, Luca||Marzioni, Marco||Meng, Fanyin||Alpini, Gianfranco||Glaser, Shannon