The Role of Iodanyl Radicals as Critical Chain Carriers in Aerobic Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry
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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Selective O2 utilization remains a substantial challenge in synthetic chemistry. Biological small-molecule oxidation reactions often utilize aerobically generated high-valent catalyst intermediates to effect substrate oxidation. Available synthetic methods for aerobic oxidation catalysis are largely limited to substrate functionalization chemistry by low-valent catalyst intermediates (i.e., aerobically generated Pd(II) intermediates). Motivated by the need for new chemical platforms for aerobic oxidation catalysis, we recently developed aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry. Here, we report that in contrast to the canonical two-electron oxidation mechanisms for the oxidation of organoiodides, the developed aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry proceeds via a radical chain mechanism initiated by the addition of aerobically generated acetoxy radicals to aryl iodides. Despite the radical chain mechanism, aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry displays substrate tolerance similar to that observed with traditional terminal oxidants, such as peracids. We anticipate that these insights will enable new sustainable oxidation chemistry via hypervalent iodine intermediates. O2 is routinely utilized in biological catalysis to generate high-valent catalyst intermediates that engage in substrate oxidation chemistry. Analogous synthetic chemistry via aerobically generated high-valent intermediates would enable new sustainable synthetic methods but is largely unknown because of the challenges in selective O2 utilization. We have developed aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry as a platform for coupling O2 reduction with a diverse set of substrate functionalization mechanisms. Many of the synthetic applications of hypervalent iodine reagents rely on selective two-electron oxidation-reduction chemistry. Here, we report that one-electron oxidation reactions pathways via iodanyl radical intermediates are critical in aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry. The new appreciation for the critical role that iodanyl radicals can play in the synthesis of hypervalent iodine compounds will provide new opportunities in sustainable oxidation catalysis. Aerobic hypervalent iodine chemistry provides a strategy for coupling the one-electron chemistry of O2 with two-electron processes typical of organic synthesis. We show that in contrast to the canonical two-electron oxidation of aryl iodides, aerobic synthesis proceeds by a radical chain process initiated by the addition of aerobically generated acetoxy radicals to aryliodides to generate iodanyl radicals. Robustness analysis reveals that the developed aerobic oxidation chemistry displays substrate tolerance similar to that observed in peracid-based methods and thus holds promise as a sustainable synthetic method.
author list (cited authors)
Hyun, S., Yuan, M., Maity, A., Gutierrez, O., & Powers, D. C.