Effect of conditioner and moisture content on flowability of yellow cornmeal
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Flow characterization of ground materials based on standard physical properties is not always accurate and must be complemented with other properties that help characterize their flowability. The flow properties of yellow cornmeal as a function of moisture content (10.0%, 13.5% 17.0%, and 20.0% wet basis) and concentrations of added conditioner (calcium stearate, a caking agent classified at GRAS, at 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% wt/wt) were measured. The optimum flow behavior characteristics of the cornmeal were achieved at 0.50% wt/wt calcium stearate and 10.0% (w.b.) moisture content based on the flow function test. Overall, the material's flowability decreased with increased moisture content based on very high values for Hausner's ratio, Carr's Index, and angle of repose. The flow index (ffc) obtained by the flow function test decreased from 6.47 to 3.82 as moisture increased, indicating increased cohesivity. Calcium stearate increased the flowability of the material at 0.50% wt/wt, beyond which the flowability was not affected (p > .05). Samples were very hygroscopic and classified as Class IV. The Hausner's ratio, Carr's Index, and angle of repose showed a strong linear relationship with the flow index with correlation values of 0.91, 0.88, and 0.88, respectively. Isotherms together with physical properties should be used to determine the flow characteristics of granulated materials such as yellow cornmeal to establish the best storage and processing conditions.
author list (cited authors)
Chinwan, D., & Castell‐Perez, M. E.