Enterocolic increase of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2 and clinical improvement after probiotic administration in dogs with chronic signs of colonic dysmotility without mucosal inflammatory changes
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BACKGROUND: Colonic dysmotility in dogs can cause different GI signs. Sometimes, histology of enterocolic biopsies does not reveal inflammatory infiltrates or mucosal lesions that are typically associated with clinical disease activity. It is speculated that, similarly to humans, colonic dysmotility may be anxiety-based, although recent data demonstrate that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) could result from acute infectious enteritis. Specific Lactobacillus spp. strains administered orally in humans induced the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in mucosal enterocytes, modulating intestinal morphine-like analgesic functions. We investigated the potential association of GI signs caused by colonic dysmotility and mucosal expression of cannabinoid receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and the number of mucosal mast cells. METHODS: Ten to 15 endoscopic biopsies were collected from colonic mucosa of 20 dogs diagnosed with dysmotility disturbances before and after probiotic (Slab51 bacterial blend; Sivoy® ) administration (3-month period). Number and distribution of mast cells (MCs), and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Results were compared to data obtained from five clinically healthy dogs (archive samples). KEY RESULTS: Decreased numbers of MCs (P < .0001) and increased CB1- and CB2-positive epithelial cells (P < .0001) in diseased dogs were positively associated with post-treatment CCECAI scores (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Our results suggest that probiotic administration can reduce signs of colonic dysmotility, possibly due to microbiota modulation and epithelial cell receptor-mediated signaling in intestinal mucosa.
author list (cited authors)
Rossi, G., Gioacchini, G., Pengo, G., Suchodolski, J. S., Jergens, A. E., Allenspach, K., ... Cerquetella, M.