Cross Cultural Invariance and Comparisons of Hungarian-, Chinese-, and English-speaking Preschool Children Leading to the Revised Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ 18) Academic Article uri icon


  • The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) was designed to measure children’s mastery motivation, a multifaceted and psychological force that supports children’s persistent interaction with and learning from their environment. DMQ 17 parent ratings of 2 to 6 year-old preschool children from English-speaking, Chinese-speaking, and Hungarian-speaking countries were used to check for measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to validate the hypothesized 5-factor structure for the preschool version of the DMQ. Cross-cultural measurement invariance was found after several items with lower factor loadings and all the reversed items were deleted. A second order 5-factor structure was validated and supports the revision of the DMQ from version 17 to version 18 for this age group and these three cultures. Cultural differences were analyzed by latent mean scores. Among the three subsamples of children, there were no differences on the DMQ scales except for gross motor persistence, which was found to be lower in Chinese-speaking children than in English- and Hungarian-speaking children. These findings support the use of the DMQ 18 as a measure of young children’s mastery motivation in at least these three cultures.

author list (cited authors)

  • Hwang, A. W., Wang, J., Jozsa, K., Wang, P. J., Liao, H. F., & Morgan, G. A.

publication date

  • January 1, 2017 11:11 AM