Comparison of photon organ and effective dose coefficients for PIMAL stylized phantom in bent positions in standard irradiation geometries Academic Article uri icon


  • Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures. The articulated phantoms represent working positions including fully and half bent torsos with extended arms for both the male and female reference adults. Dose coefficients are compared for both the upright and bent positions across monoenergetic photon energies: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 MeV. Additionally, the organ doses are compared across the International Commission on Radiological Protection's standard external radiation exposure geometries: antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left and right lateral, and isotropic (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, and ISO). For the AP and PA irradiation geometries, differences in organ doses compared to the upright phantom become more profound with increasing bending angles and have doses largely overestimated for all organs except the brain in AP and bladder in PA. In LLAT and RLAT irradiation geometries, energy deposition for organs is more likely to be underestimated compared to the upright phantom, with no overall change despite increased bending angle. The ISO source geometry did not cause a significant difference in absorbed organ dose between the different phantoms, regardless of position. Organ and effective fluence-to-dose coefficients are tabulated. In the AP geometry, the effective dose at the 45° bent position is overestimated compared to the upright phantom below 1 MeV by as much as 27% and 82% in the 90° position. The effective dose in the 45° bent position was comparable to that in the 90° bent position for the LLAT and RLAT irradiation geometries. However, the upright phantom underestimates the effective dose to PIMAL in the LLAT and RLAT geometries by as much as 30% at 50 keV.

author list (cited authors)

  • Dewji, S., Reed, K. L., & Hiller, M.

citation count

  • 5

publication date

  • June 2017