Description of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) mitochondrial genome and comparative mitogenomics of Aphididae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha)
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), a major agricultural pest in the world, is described for the first time, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, as well as a large repeat region between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe, and an AT-rich control region. The 17,954 bp mtgenome is the largest reported from the family Aphididae, and its gene order follows the ancestral insect mtgenome except for the repeat region, which contains a 195 bp unit repeated 11.9 times, representing the highest reported repeats among the known aphid mtgenomes to date. A new molecular phylogeny of Aphidae is reconstructed based on all available aphid mtgenomes, and it is shown that the mtgenome data can robustly resolve relationships at the subfamily level, but do not have sufficient phylogenetic information to resolve deep relationships. A phylogeny-based comparative analysis of mtgenomes has been performed to investigate the evolution of the repeat region between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. So far, among aphids, 13 species are known to have this repeat region of variable lengths, and a phylogenetic analysis of the repeat region shows that a large proportion of the sequences are conserved across the phylogeny, suggesting that the repeat region evolved in the most recent common ancestor of Aphidinae and Eriosomatinae, and that it has gone through numerous episodes of lineage-specific losses and expansions. Combined together, this study provides novel insights into how the repeat regions have evolved within aphids.
author list (cited authors)
Song, H., Donthu, R. K., Hall, R., Hon, L., Weber, E., Badger, J. H., & Giordano, R.