Intrinsic GTPase Activity of K-RAS Monitored by Native Mass Spectrometry.
Additional Document Info
Mutations in RAS are associated with many different cancers and have been a therapeutic target for more than three decades. RAS cycles from an active to inactive state by both intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated hydrolysis. The activated enzyme interacts with downstream effectors, leading to tumor proliferation. Mutations in RAS associated with cancer are insensitive to GAP, and the rate of inactivation is limited to their intrinsic hydrolysis rate. Here, we use high-resolution native mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the kinetics and transition state thermodynamics of intrinsic hydrolysis for K-RAS and its oncogenic mutants. MS data reveal heterogeneity where both 2'-deoxy and 2'-hydroxy forms of GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate) are bound to the recombinant enzyme. Intrinsic GTPase activity is directly monitored by the loss in mass of K-RAS bound to GTP, which corresponds to the release of phosphate. The rates determined from MS are in direct agreement with those measured using an established solution-based assay. Our results show that the transition state thermodynamics for the intrinsic GTPase activity of K-RAS is both enthalpically and entropically unfavorable. The oncogenic mutants G12C, Q61H, and G13D unexpectedly exhibit a 2'-deoxy GTP intrinsic hydrolysis rate higher than that for GTP.