Redox regulation of a novel L1Md-A2 retrotransposon in vascular smooth muscle cells. Academic Article uri icon


  • Activation and reintegration of retrotransposons into the genome is linked to several diseases in human and rodents, but mechanisms of gene activation remain largely unknown. Here we identify a novel gene of L1Md-A2 lineage in vascular smooth muscle cells and show that environmental hydrocarbons enhance gene expression and activate monomer-driven transcription via a redox-sensitive mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis and progressive deletion analyses identified two antioxidant/electrophile response-like elements (5'-GTGACTCGAGC-3') within the A2/3 and A3 region. These elements mediated activation, with the A3 monomer playing an essential role in transactivation. This signaling pathway may contribute to gene instability during the course of atherogenesis.

published proceedings

  • J Biol Chem

author list (cited authors)

  • Lu, K. P., & Ramos, K. S.

citation count

  • 31

complete list of authors

  • Lu, Kim P||Ramos, Kenneth S

publication date

  • July 2003