Watershed scale assessment of rare earth elements in soils derived from sedimentary rocks.
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Despite the rare earth elements (REEs) being considered as emerging contaminants, their natural values and possible anthropogenic enrichments in soils have not been studied well in Brazil. The intensive use of conditioners and fertilizers in agricultural frontiers from Brazilian Cerrado can increase the concentration of REE in soils of the region. In this context, the objectives of this study were to determine the natural content and establish quality reference values (QRV) for REEs in soils of a watershed from Brazilian Cerrado composed of sedimentary rocks and to evaluate the influence of agricultural cultivation and the spatial variability of these elements. Thirty and twenty-six composite soil samples were collected under native vegetation and soybean cultivation, respectively. The background concentrations followed the order (mg kg-1) Ce > Nd > La > Pr > Sm > Yb > Er > Eu > Dy. The QRVs established were as follows (mg kg-1): La (1.76), Ce (5.20), Pr (0.74), Nd (1.35), Sm (0.38), Eu (0.06), Dy (0.15), Er (0.12), and Yb (0.14). Lantanium, Ce, and Er exhibited strong spatial dependence, while Eu, Dy, and Yb showed weak or total absence of spatial dependence. The spherical model was most suitable for the spatial characteristics of REEs. The parent material, mainly characterized by soils derived from sedimentary rocks (i.e., sandstone), was the primordial source of REEs for soils and that there was no or little effect of agricultural practices on these levels. Our data reinforced the need for geochemical mapping at the watershed scale, since they are important conservation units.
author list (cited authors)
de Albuquerque Pereira, B., da Silva, Y., do Nascimento, C., da Silva, Y., Nascimento, R. C., Boechat, C. L., Barbosa, R. S., & Singh, V. P.
complete list of authors
de Albuquerque Pereira, Bárbara||da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra||do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo||da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra||Nascimento, Rennan Cabral||Boechat, Cácio Luiz||Barbosa, Ronny Sobreira||Singh, Vijay P