Evaluation of in silico designed inhibitors targeting MelF (Rv1936) against Mycobacterium marinum within macrophages
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We recently identified inhibitors targeting Mycobacterium marinum MelF (Rv1936) by in silico analysis, which exhibited bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against M. marinum and M. tuberculosis in vitro. Herein, we evaluated the effect of best four inhibitors (# 5175552, # 6513745, # 5255829, # 9125618) obtained from the ChemBridge compound libraries, on intracellular replication and persistence of bacteria within IFN-γ activated murine RAW264.7 and human THP-1 macrophages infected with M. marinum. Inhibitors # 5175552 and # 6513745 significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the intracellular replication of bacilli during day 7 post-infection (p.i.) within RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages infected at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of ~1.0. These observations were substantiated by electron microscopy, which revealed the protective effect of # 5175552 in clearing the bacilli inside murine macrophages. Strikingly, # 6513745 displayed synergism with isoniazid against M. marinum in murine macrophages, whereas # 5175552 significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) the persistent bacilli during day 10-14 p.i. in infected RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages (MOI of ~ 0.1). Moreover, # 5175552 and # 6513745 were non-cytotoxic to host macrophages at both 1X and 5X MIC. Further validation of these inhibitors against M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages and animal models has potential for development as novel anti-tubercular agents.
author list (cited authors)
Dharra, R., Radhakrishnan, V. S., Prasad, T., Thakur, Z., Cirillo, J. D., Sheoran, A., ... Mehta, P. K.