Skeletal response to whole body vibration and dietary calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs.
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The quality and strength of the skeleton is regulated by mechanical loading and adequate mineral intake of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to elicit adaptive responses in the skeleton, such as increased bone mass and strength. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of WBV and dietary Ca and P on bone microarchitecture and turnover. A total of 26 growing pigs were utilized in a 60-d experiment. Pigs were randomly assigned within group to a 2 2 factorial design with dietary Ca and P concentration (low and adequate) as well as WBV. The adequate diet was formulated to meet all nutritional needs according to the NRC recommendations for growing pigs. Low Ca, P diets had 0.16% lower Ca and 0.13% lower P than the adequate diet. Pigs receiving WBV were vibrated 30 min/d, 3 d/wk at a magnitude of 1 to 2 mm and a frequency of 50 Hz. On days 0, 30, and 60, digital radiographs were taken to determine bone mineral content by radiographic bone aluminum equivalency (RBAE) and serum was collected to measure biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, OC) and bone resorption (carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, CTX-I). At day 60, pigs were euthanized and the left third metacarpal bone was excised for detailed analysis by microcomputed tomography (microCT) to measure trabecular microarchitecture and cortical bone geometry. Maximum RBAE values for the medial or lateral cortices were not affected (P > 0.05) by WBV. Pigs fed adequate Ca and P tended (P = 0.10) to have increased RBAE max values for the medial and lateral cortices. WBV pigs had significantly decreased serum CTX-1 concentrations (P = 0.044), whereas animals fed a low Ca and P diet had increased (P < 0.05) OC concentrations. In bone, WBV pigs showed a significantly lower trabecular number (P = 0.002) and increased trabecular separation (P = 0.003), whereas cortical bone parameters were not significantly altered by WBV or diet (P > 0.05). In summary, this study confirmed the normal physiological responses of the skeleton to a low Ca, P diet. Interestingly, although the WBV protocol utilized in this study did not elicit any significant osteogenic response, decreases in CTX-1 in response to WBV may have been an early local adaptive bone response. We interpret these data to suggest that the frequency and amplitude of WBV was likely sufficient to elicit a bone remodeling response, but the duration of the study may not have captured the full extent of an entire bone remodeling cycle.
author list (cited authors)
Huseman, C. J., Sigler, D. H., Welsh, T. H., Suva, L. J., Vogelsang, M. M., Dominguez, B. J., Huggins, S., & Paulk, C.
complete list of authors
Huseman, Chelsie J||Sigler, Dennis H||Welsh, Thomas H||Suva, Larry J||Vogelsang, Martha M||Dominguez, Brandon J||Huggins, Shannon||Paulk, Chad