Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in surface sediments of Lake Qaroun, Egypt
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A suite of trace metals was determined in twenty surface sediments collected from Lake Qaroun, which is designated as a natural reserve in 1989 to examine their spatial distribution and their potential environmental impact on the lake. Contamination factor (Cf), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and pollution load index (PLI) are applied to evaluate the quality of the lake. The highest concentrations were detected in the eastern portion of the lake near Al-Bats drain. The levels of Ba exceeded the toxicity reference value (TRV) (20 ng/g dw) set by US EPA for all sediments, while sediments collected from Al-Bats region exceeded the TRV for Zn (68 ng/g dw). Arsenic, Ba, Sn, Co, Cu, and Hg are poorly correlated with background value of Fe suggesting anthropogenic activities over the entire lake. The values of Cf and Igeo confirmed that the eastern portion of the lake has been found moderately to considerably contaminated by As, Sn, and Zn. Sediments collected from the eastern location (S1) were very highly enriched of Sn (22.47); however, the other eastern locations were highly enriched of Sn, As, Cd, Co, and Ba. It is clear that sites near Al-Bats and El-Wadi drains are hot spots, which got immense amounts of domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. Behind the influence of these discharges, concentrations are decreased. The PLI over the entire lake ranged from 0.247 to 0.801 for all sites, which reflect unpolluted status.
author list (cited authors)
El-Kady, A. A., Wade, T. L., Sweet, S. T., & Klein, A. G.