Matrix metalloproteinase signals following neurotrauma are right on cue
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Neurotrauma, a term referencing both traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, is unique to neurodegeneration in that onset is clearly defined. From the perspective of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), there is opportunity to define their temporal participation in injury and recovery beginning at the level of the synapse. Here we examine the diverse roles of MMPs in the context of targeted insults (optic nerve lesion and hippocampal and olfactory bulb deafferentation), and clinically relevant focal models of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Time-specific MMP postinjury signaling is critical to synaptic recovery after focal axonal injuries; members of the MMP family exhibit a signature temporal profile corresponding to axonal degeneration and regrowth, where they direct postinjury reorganization and synaptic stabilization. In both traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, MMPs mediate early secondary pathogenesis including disruption of the blood-brain barrier, creating an environment that may be hostile to recovery. They are also critical players in wound healing including angiogenesis and the formation of an inhibitory glial scar. Experimental strategies to reduce their activity in the acute phase result in long-term neurological recovery after neurotrauma and have led to the first clinical trial in spinal cord injured pet dogs.
author list (cited authors)
Trivedi, A., Noble-Haeusslein, L. J., Levine, J. M., Santucci, A. D., Reeves, T. M., & Phillips, L. L.