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Artificial environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert public health concerns. Exposure to EDCs may induce various disorders in the cardiometabolic system. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Over the past decade, an abundance of evidence has emerged demonstrating a close link between cardiometabolic disorders and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunological effects on macrophages from six EDCs via sirtuin (SIRT) regulation using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell. We studied first the effects of these EDCs, including a series of doses of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), or perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), on SIRT1-7 transcriptional level. Among these EDCs, MEHP significantly decreased all sirtuin genes' expression in a dose-dependent manner. Under MEHP treatment, SIRT activity and protein expression were significantly decreased, while the protein expression of acetylated NF-B was significantly increased along with significant increases in IL-1 transcription. These results indicate that MEHP may induce the inflammatory response via SIRT-mediated acetylation of NF-B. Additionally, the enhanced IL-1 secretion in the presence of 50 M MEHP ( P < 0.01) also supports inflammasome activation (significant ASC and NLRP3 protein augmentation). Both events may be regulated by MEHP induced reactive oxygen species ( P < 0.01). In conclusion, our study suggests for the first time that EDCs differentially modulate sirtuins' gene expression levels in macrophages and that a specific phthalate MEHP can lead to an increased inflammatory response by impairing vital epigenetic regulators and inflammasome activation.
author list (cited authors)
Park, M. H., Gutirrez-Garca, A. K., & Choudhury, M.