The antinociceptive effects of intravenous administration of three doses of butorphanol tartrate or naloxone hydrochloride following hydromorphone hydrochloride to healthy conscious cats
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thermal antinociception from intravenous (IV) administration of hydromorphone alone or followed by butorphanol or naloxone in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, masked, crossover design. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult female cats. METHODS: Cats were administered six treatments of two IV injections 30 minutes apart: treatments S-S, two 0.9% saline; H-S, hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg-1) and saline; H-LB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.02 mg kg-1); H-MB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.1 mg kg-1); H-HB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1); H-N, hydromorphone and naloxone (0.04 mg kg-1). Skin temperature (ST), thermal threshold (TT) and sedation score (SS) were recorded before (baseline) and for 8 hours after the first injection. Percentage maximum possible effect (%MPE), thermal excursion (TE), TT, SS and ST were compared using two-way repeated measures anova or Friedman test followed by Tukey's or Dunn's multiple comparisons test when appropriate. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Data from seven cats were analyzed. There were no significant differences among treatments in baseline values, SS and within S-S over time. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values following hydromorphone administration, %MPE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6-8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values, TE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 2 and 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6 and 8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Butorphanol and naloxone reduced hydromorphone-induced thermal antinociception. Butorphanol preserved hydromorphone antinociceptive properties better than naloxone. Butorphanol is recommended during non-life-threatening scenarios as a partial reversal agent for hydromorphone in cats.
author list (cited authors)
Simon, B. T., Scallan, E. M., Baetge, C. L., Coursey, C. D., & Lizarraga, I.