A transient two-phase flow model for production prediction of tight gas wells with fracturing fluid-induced formation damage
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© 2019, Society of Petroleum Engineers A major concern with hydraulic fracturing in tight formation is the fracturing fluid-induced formation damage (FFIFD) for the high capillary pressure and the presence of water-sensitive clays. Analytical models are good choices for formation damage evaluation comparing to computationally expensive numerical simulations. However, many analytical models are limited to single-phase flow and the FFIFD is seldom addressed. This paper presents a semi-analytical model for this problem with the consideration of both two-phase flow and FFIFD. A triple-porosity model is modified to capture the formation damage caused by fracturing fluid, and mainly two modifications are made. First, two-phase flow is assumed in the fractures to capture the choking effects. In addition, a low permeability fracturing fluid invasion layer (FFIL) is used to characterize leakoff caused clay swelling and polymer adsorption in the matrix pores. The analytical solution is obtained in the Laplace domain, and a successive iteration is used to update the dynamic parameters by coupling the flowing material balance equations. The precision of the semi-analytical model is validated using the commercial numerical simulator Eclipse. Several synthetic cases and a field case are studied, the results show that gas production is greatly affected by FFIFD. The effect of two-phase flow on gas production is mainly within the early several days. The permeability and width of FFIL have a significant effect on gas production. Gas production rate in the early hundreds of days will be much larger with thinner FFIL and larger permeability, but it will decline sharper later for the faster depletion. The field case shows that different models can match the production data, but the interpreted parameters and the physical meaning are totally different. In addition, a good match will be obtained with FFIFD and two-phase flow effects considered in the model. A simple yet versatile semi-analytical model is proposed in this paper for production prediction and analysis with the consideration of both FFIFD and two-phase flow. It is a quite comprehensive model to allow for a seamless way to analyze production data in the flow-back and production stage. It can also serve as an alternative to computationally expensive numerical simulations to evaluate the formation damage for unconventional reservoirs.
author list (cited authors)
Wu, Y., Cheng, L., Huang, S., Fang, S., Killough, J. E., Jia, P., & Wang, S.