How Do Stakeholders Perceive Barriers to Large-Scale Wind Power Diffusion? A Q-Method Case Study from Ceará State, Brazil Academic Article uri icon


  • © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( High penetration of renewable power requires technical, organizational, and political changes. We use Q-method, a qualitative-quantitative technique, to identify and analyze views held by key actors on challenges for large-scale diffusion of wind power in Ceará State, Brazil, an early leader in wind power with 2.05 GW installed capacity. Four quantitatively determined social perspectives were identified with regard to views on challenges for wind power expansion: (1) failing because of the grid; (2) environmental challenges; (3) planning for wind, and (4) participating in wind. Each social perspective emphasizes a different array of barriers, such as cost of new transmission lines, transformation of a hydro-thermal mental model, predictive capacity for wind energy, and the need for participatory forum. Understanding the subjective views of stakeholders is a key first step in eventually reducing these barriers to renewable power penetration through diverse policy interventions.

author list (cited authors)

  • Frate, C. A., & Brannstrom, C.

citation count

  • 3

publication date

  • May 2019