βC1 protein encoded in geminivirus satellite concertedly targets MKK2 and MPK4 to counter host defense
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Plant viruses have evolved multiple strategies to overcome host defense to establish an infection. Here, we identified two components of a host mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, MKK2 and MPK4, as bona fide targets of the βC1 protein encoded by the betasatellite of tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV). βC1 interacts with the kinase domain of MKK2 and inhibits its activity. In vivo, βC1 suppresses flagellin-induced MAPK activation and downstream responses by targeting MKK2. Furthermore, βC1 also interacts with MPK4 and inhibits its kinase activity. TYLCCNV infection induces the activation of the MAPK cascade, mutation in MKK2 or MPK4 renders the plant more susceptible to TYLCCNV, and can complement the lack of βC1. This work shows for the first time that a plant virus both activates and suppresses a MAPK cascade, and the discovery of the ability of βC1 to selectively interfere with the host MAPK activation illustrates a novel virulence function and counter-host defense mechanism of geminiviruses.
author list (cited authors)
Hu, T., Huang, C., He, Y., Castillo-González, C., Gui, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, X., & Zhou, X.