Chae, Sung Hee (2005-12). Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. Doctoral Dissertation.
This study was conducted to examine the antioxidative effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. The hypothesis was that CLA would be retained during irradiation and would reduce lipid oxidation that is caused by irradiation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of CLA alone and in combination with irradiation on lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, cooking loss, moisture and fat content, and trained panel sensory evaluations of beef patties. CLA was added at 0, 1, 2, or 4% level during the grinding process. Addition of CLA during the grinding process increased CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 isomers in both irradiated and non-irradiated cooked ground beef patties (irradiated at 1.6 kGy) (P = 0.0001). Weight loss during cooking was greater in irradiated beef patties than in non-irradiated patties (P = 0.004). Irradiation reduced the serumy/bloody aromatic attribute and increased browned aromatic attribute, browned aftertaste, and wet dog/hairy aromatic attribute (P < 0.05). There was no significant main effect of irradiation on the basic tastes. The linoleic acid, CLA cis-9,trans-11, and CLA trans-10,cis-12 were decreased by irradiation (P < 0.05). Although irradiation decreased the CLA isomers, higher percentages of CLA isomers were retained in irradiated patties containing a 4% free fatty acid preparation of CLA (FFA-CLA), reflecting the ability of the FFA preparation to reduce lipid oxidation that is caused by irradiation. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were significantly higher in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties than in non-irradiated ground beef patties (P = 0.004). Although the FFA-CLA was effective in reducing lipid oxidation that is caused by irradiation, it increased painty aromatic attribute, bitter taste, and astringent aftertaste due to the soapy flavor of the free fatty acid (all P < 0.05). The FFA-CLA decreased cooked beef/brothy and serumy/bloody aromatic attribute and browned aftertaste (all P < 0.05). The 1% triacylglycerol (TAG) preparation of CLA reduced TBARS in irradiated, cooked patties to levels seen in control, non-irradiated patties. The 1% TAG concentration also provided good retention of CLA in the cooked ground beef.