Second harmonic generation in graphene dressed by a strong terahertz field
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2019 American Physical Society. We observe enhanced second harmonic generation in monolayer graphene in the presence of an ultrastrong terahertz field pulse of picosecond duration with a peak amplitude of 250 kV/cm. This is a strongly nonperturbative regime of light-matter interaction in which particles get accelerated to energies exceeding the initial Fermi energy of 0.2 eV over a timescale of a few femtoseconds. The second harmonic current is generated as electrons drift through the region of momenta corresponding to interband transition resonance at an optical frequency. The resulting strongly asymmetric distortion of carrier distribution in momentum space gives rise to an enhanced electric-dipole nonlinear response at the second harmonic. We develop an approximate analytic theory of this effect which accurately predicts observed intensity and polarization of the second harmonic signal.