Paenibacillus 79R4, a potential rumen probiotic to enhance nitrite detoxification and methane mitigation in nitrate-treated ruminants Academic Article uri icon


  • The effects of supplemental nitrate administered alone or with a denitrifying ruminal bacterium, designated Paenibacillus 79R4 (79R4) intentionally selected for enhanced nitrate- and nitrite-metabolizing ability, on select rumen fermentation characteristics was examined in vivo. Rumen and blood samples were collected from cannulated Holstein steers one day prior to and one day after initiation of treatments applied as three consecutive intra-ruminal administrations of nitrate, to achieve the equivalent of 83 mg sodium nitrate/kg body weight day, given alone or with the nitrite-selected 79R4 (provided to achieve 106 cells/mL rumen fluid). Results revealed a day effect on methane-producing activity, with rates of methane production by ruminal microbes being more rapid when collected one day before than one day after initiation of treatments. Nitrate-metabolizing activity of the rumen microbes was unaffected by day, treatment or their interaction. A day by treatment interaction was observed on nitrite-metabolizing activity, with rates of nitrite metabolism by rumen microbes being most rapid in populations collected one day after initiation of treatment from steers treated with nitrate plus 79R4. A day by treatment interaction was also observed on plasma methemoglobin concentrations, with concentrations being lower from steers one day after initiation of treatments than from collected one day prior to treatment initiation and concentrations being lowest in steers treated with nitrate plus 79R4. A major effect of treatment was observed on accumulations of most prominent and branched chain volatile fatty acids produced and amounts of hexose fermented in the rumen of animals administered nitrate, with concentrations being decreased in steers administered nitrate alone when compared to steers treated with nitrate plus the 79R4. These results demonstrate that the nitrite-selected Paenibacillus 79R4 may help prevent nitrite toxicity in nitrate-treated ruminants while maintaining benefits of reduced methane emissions and preventing inhibition of fermentation efficiency by the microbial ecosystem.

altmetric score

  • 10

author list (cited authors)

  • Latham, E. A., Pinchak, W. E., Trachsel, J., Allen, H. K., Callaway, T. R., Nisbet, D. J., & Anderson, R. C.

citation count

  • 5

publication date

  • June 2019