Creep characterization of vapor‐grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology
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© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The effects of selected factors such as vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) weight fraction, applied stress, and temperature on the viscoelastic responses (creep strain and creep compliance) of VGCNF/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites were studied using a central composite design (CCD). Nanocomposite test articles were fabricated by high-shear mixing, casting, curing, and post curing in an open-face mold under a nitrogen environment. Short-term creep/creep recovery experiments were conducted at prescribed combinations of temperature (23.8-69.2°C), applied stress (30.2-49.8 MPa), and VGCNF weight fraction (0.00-1.00 parts of VGCNF per hundred parts of resin) determined from the CCD. Response surface models (RSMs) for predicting these viscoelastic responses were developed using the least squares method and an analysis of variance procedure. The response surface estimates indicate that increasing the VGCNF weight fraction marginally increases the creep resistance of the VGCNF/VE nanocomposite at low temperatures (i.e., 23.8-46.5°C). However, increasing the VGCNF weight fraction decreased the creep resistance of these nanocomposites for temperatures greater than 50°C. The latter response may be due to a decrease in the nanofiber-to-matrix adhesion as the temperature is increased. The RSMs for creep strain and creep compliance revealed the interactions between the VGCNF weight fraction, stress, and temperature on the creep behavior of thermoset polymer nanocomposites. The design of experiments approach is useful in revealing interactions between selected factors, and thus can facilitate the development of more physics-based models.
author list (cited authors)
Drake, D. A., Sullivan, R. W., Lacy, T. E., Pittman, C. U., Toghiani, H., DuBien, J. L., Nouranian, S., & Simsiriwong, J.