Toward Computational Simulations of Behavior During Automated Driving Takeovers: A Review of the Empirical and Modeling Literatures Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: This article provides a review of empirical studies of automated vehicle takeovers and driver modeling to identify influential factors and their impacts on takeover performance and suggest driver models that can capture them. BACKGROUND: Significant safety issues remain in automated-to-manual transitions of vehicle control. Developing models and computer simulations of automated vehicle control transitions may help designers mitigate these issues, but only if accurate models are used. Selecting accurate models requires estimating the impact of factors that influence takeovers. METHOD: Articles describing automated vehicle takeovers or driver modeling research were identified through a systematic approach. Inclusion criteria were used to identify relevant studies and models of braking, steering, and the complete takeover process for further review. RESULTS: The reviewed studies on automated vehicle takeovers identified several factors that significantly influence takeover time and post-takeover control. Drivers were found to respond similarly between manual emergencies and automated takeovers, albeit with a delay. The findings suggest that existing braking and steering models for manual driving may be applicable to modeling automated vehicle takeovers. CONCLUSION: Time budget, repeated exposure to takeovers, silent failures, and handheld secondary tasks significantly influence takeover time. These factors in addition to takeover request modality, driving environment, non-handheld secondary tasks, level of automation, trust, fatigue, and alcohol significantly impact post-takeover control. Models that capture these effects through evidence accumulation were identified as promising directions for future work. APPLICATION: Stakeholders interested in driver behavior during automated vehicle takeovers may use this article to identify starting points for their work.

author list (cited authors)

  • McDonald, A. D., Alambeigi, H., Engström, J., Markkula, G., Vogelpohl, T., Dunne, J., & Yuma, N.

citation count

  • 12

publication date

  • June 2019


  • Autonomous Driving
  • Driver Behavior
  • Meta-analysis
  • Simulation