A Novel Prefabricated Grid for Guided Endodontic Microsurgery
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INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to introduce a novel method using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging and prefabricated grids to guide apical access during endodontic microsurgery and to compare its accuracy with that of the nonguided method. METHODS: Forty-two roots from human cadaver jaws were selected. Twenty-one were randomly assigned to the experimental group (grid based) and their contralateral counterparts to the control group (nonguided). Preoperative CBCT images were used to design a drill path that intended to reach the palatal/lingual aspect of the roots without attempting to complete the osteotomy or to resect the entire root end. In the experimental group, prefabricated metal grids used during imaging and surgery acted as a reference in the design and drilling. Postoperative CBCT volumes were superimposed on the preoperative volumes, and the distances between the actual drill paths and the target points were measured. A dichotomized outcome of success versus failure was also recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: The mean deviation of the drill paths from the target points was 0.66 mm ± 0.54 mm (mean ± standard deviation) for grid-based drilling and 1.92 mm ± 1.05 mm (mean ± standard deviation) for nonguided drilling (P < .001). Grid-based drilling was on average 1.27 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.72 mm) closer to the target point than nonguided drilling. The probability of successful drilling was also significantly higher with grids than without grids (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method of guided osteotomy and root-end resection using prefabricated grids was more accurate than the nonguided method.
author list (cited authors)
Fan, Y., Glickman, G. N., Umorin, M., Nair, M. K., & Jalali, P.