3-Aminobenzamide Blocks MAMP-Induced Callose Deposition Independently of Its Poly(ADPribosyl)ation Inhibiting Activity. Academic Article uri icon


  • Cell wall reinforcement with callose is a frequent plant response to infection. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a protein post-translational modification mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has well-known roles in DNA damage repair and has more recently been shown to contribute to plant immune responses. 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) is an established PARP inhibitor and it blocks the callose deposition elicited by flg22 or elf18, two microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, we report that an Arabidopsis parp1parp2parp3 triple mutant does not exhibit loss of flg22-induced callose deposition. Additionally, the more specific PARP inhibitors PJ-34 and INH2BP inhibit PARP activity in Arabidopsis but do not block MAMP-induced callose deposition. These data demonstrate off-target activity of 3AB and indicate that 3AB inhibits callose deposition through a mechanism other than poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4) is the callose synthase responsible for the majority of MAMP- and wound-induced callose deposition in Arabidopsis. 3AB does not block wound-induced callose deposition, and 3AB does not reduce the PMR4 mRNA abundance increase in response to flg22. Levels of PMR4-HA protein increase in response to flg22, and increase even more in flg22 + 3AB despite no callose being produced. The callose synthase inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose does not cause similar impacts on PMR4-HA protein levels. Beyond MAMPs, we find that 3AB also reduces callose deposition induced by powdery mildew (Golovinomyces cichoracearum) and impairs the penetration resistance of a PMR4 overexpression line. 3AB thus reveals pathogenesis-associated pathways that activate callose synthase enzymatic activity distinct from those that elevate PMR4 mRNA and protein abundance.

published proceedings

  • Front Plant Sci

altmetric score

  • 2

author list (cited authors)

  • Keppler, B. D., Song, J., Nyman, J., Voigt, C. A., & Bent, A. F.

citation count

  • 9

complete list of authors

  • Keppler, Brian D||Song, Junqi||Nyman, Jackson||Voigt, Christian A||Bent, Andrew F

publication date

  • January 2018