In vivo approach of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite filler as bone induction factor
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Tissue engineering combine biomaterials, cells and biologically active molecules having as a goal create functional tissues; many of the compositions are blends of a polymeric matrix with ceramic fillers, however, reduction of mechanical resistance can be a drawback on ceramic-polymer systems. In this manuscript, we investigate the potential of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) whiskers, a needle shape bioceramic, to enhance mechanical and osteoconduction properties on the polymeric matrix. For this purpose, PCL scaffolds incorporating CDHA whiskers were produced by combining solvent casting and particulate leaching techniques to develop a composite scaffold that possess mechanical and biological properties which is useful for bone tissue engineering regeneration. We produced CDHA whiskers using alkaline hydrolysis of α-tricalcium phosphate and characterized by XRD, XRF and SEM. PCL/CDHA scaffolds were fabricated with a final porosity of ~70%, quantified by SEM images. Mechanical properties were evaluated by compression test. As an initial test, PCL/CDHA scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid to quantify apatite deposition. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to assess cytotoxicity and bioactivity. CDHA whiskers exhibited a needle-like morphology and a Ca/P ratio equal to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. The composite scaffolds contained interconnected pores 177 to 350 μm in size and homogeneous ceramic distribution. The addition of CDHA whiskers influences the mechanical results: higher elastic modulus and compressive strength was observed on PCL/CDHA samples. In vitro results demonstrated biocompatibility on PCL and PCL/CDHA films. In vivo data demonstrated cellular infiltration from the surrounding tissue with new bone formation that suggests bioactive potential of CDHA whiskers. Our goal was to produce a scaffold with a potential induction factor and a favorable morphology, which was proved according to this study's findings.
author list (cited authors)
Cardoso, G., Tondon, A., Maia, L., Cunha, M. R., Zavaglia, C., & Kaunas, R. R.