The proposed mechanism of fibril formation of transthyretin (TTR) involves self-assembly of partially unfolded monomers. However, the mechanism(s) of disassembly to monomer and potential intermediates involved in this process are not fully understood. In this study, native mass spectrometry and surface-induced dissociation (SID) are used to investigate the TTR disassembly mechanism(s) and the effects of temperature and ionic strength on the kinetics of TTR complex formation. Results from the SID of hybrid tetramers formed during subunit exchange provide strong evidence for a two-step mechanism whereby the tetramer dissociates to dimers that then dissociate to monomers. Also, the SID results uncovered a hidden pathway in which a specific topology of the hybrid tetramer is directly produced by assembly of dimers in the early steps of TTR disassembly. Implementation of SID to dissect protein topology during subunit exchange provides unique opportunities to gain unparalleled insight into disassembly pathways.