Contributions of glomerular and tubular mechanisms to antidiuresis in conscious domestic fowl.
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Recently developed radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques were employed in a quantitative investigation of the renal actions of the avian antidiuretic hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) in the conscious domestic fowl. Constant intravenous infusion of AVT at doses of 0.125-1.00 ng X kg-1 X min-1 was used to produce plasma AVT (PAVT) concentrations (verified by RIA) over the entire range of physiological PAVT levels in the domestic fowl. Comparison of the dose-response relationships between PAVT and glomerular and tubular mechanisms of antidiuresis revealed that tubular mechanisms are of primary importance and glomerular mechanisms of secondary importance in the conservation of water by the avian kidney. The greatest proportion of the total AVT-induced reduction in renal water excretion occurred at low physiological PAVT levels (less than 5 microU/ml), prior to any significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and appeared to be the exclusive result of tubular mechanisms of antidiuresis. At high PAVT levels (5-16 microU/ml), glomerular and tubular mechanisms overlapped, and their effects on water conservation could not be separated. Although GFR was reduced by nearly 30% at the highest dose of AVT, only minor additional amounts of water were conserved by the combined actions of glomerular and tubular mechanisms. Thus glomerular mechanisms appear to have only a minor secondary effect on water-conserving ability of the avian kidney.
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Stallone, J. N., & Braun, E. J.
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