Raptor Emergency and Critical Care: Therapy and Techniques Academic Article uri icon


  • Following initial assessment, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, placement of intraosseous and intravenous catheters and air sac tubes, and figure-of-eight bandaging may help clinicians stabilize critical raptor patients. Fluid therapy, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products, is indicated in critical avian patients. Estimation of dehydration is challenging but necessary to calculate fluid need. Consideration of route, rate, and type of fluid as well as continued patient hydration status assessment are necessary for successful fluid therapy. In addition to fluid therapy, corticosteroids, analgesics, and antibiotics commonly found in veterinary practices are required for raptor critical care. Potential drug therapies and descriptions of emergency techniques in raptors are provided.

published proceedings

  • Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian

author list (cited authors)

  • Heatley, J. J., Marks, S., Mitchell, M., & Tully, T.

complete list of authors

  • Heatley, JJ||Marks, S||Mitchell, M||Tully, T

publication date

  • June 2001