Imaging of spontaneous canine mammary tumors using fluorescent contrast agents. Academic Article uri icon


  • We present near-infrared frequency-domain photon migration imaging for the lifetime sensitive detection and localization of exogenous fluorescent contrast agents within tissue-simulating phantoms and actual tissues. We employ intensity-modulated excitation light that is expanded and delivered to the surface of a tissue or tissue-simulating phantom. The intensity-modulated fluorescence generated from within the volume propagates to the surface and is collected using a gain-modulated image-intensified charge-coupled device camera. From the spatial values of modulation amplitude and phase of the detected fluorescent light, micromolar volumes of diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (tau = 1.17 ns) and indocyanine green (ICG) (tau = 0.58 ns) embedded 1.0 cm deep in a tissue phantom are localized and discriminated on the basis of their lifetime differences. To demonstrate the utility of frequency-domain fluorescent measurements for imaging disease, we image the fluorescence emitted from the surface of in vivo and ex vivo canine mammary gland tissues containing lesions with preferential uptake of ICG. Pathology confirms the ability to detect spontaneous mammary tumors and regional lymph nodes amidst normal mammary tissue and fat as deep as 1.5 cm from the tissue surface.

published proceedings

  • Photochem Photobiol

author list (cited authors)

  • Reynolds, J. S., Troy, T. L., Mayer, R. H., Thompson, A. B., Waters, D. J., Cornell, K. K., Snyder, P. W., & Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

citation count

  • 174

complete list of authors

  • Reynolds, JS||Troy, TL||Mayer, RH||Thompson, AB||Waters, DJ||Cornell, KK||Snyder, PW||Sevick-Muraca, EM

publication date

  • July 1999