- Knowledge of the regional anatomy and healing characteristics of the urinary bladder are crucial to successful surgical intervention in common disorders of the bladder. Innervation and blood supply enter the neck region of the bladder on the dorsal surface. Surgical approach to the bladder is via a ventral midline incision. Cystotomy is most commonly performed on the ventral surface of the bladder and the incision is closed using absorbable suture material in a single-layer, appositional closure. Removal of urinary calculi is the most common indication for cystotomy and should be accompanied by mucosal biopsy and culture. After cystotomy for removal of calculi, a lateral radiograph should be made to confirm removal of all calculi. Partial cystectomy is indicated for bladder trauma, neoplasia, patent urachus, and urachal diverticula. A large percentage of the bladder wall can be excised with gradual return to near normal function when the trigone region is preserved. Complete cystectomy is not recommended because of the patient morbidity and client dissatisfaction with these procedures. Tube cystostomy is performed routinely for temporary or permanent urinary diversion. Temporary diversion may be performed concurrently with surgical repair of urethral trauma or to relieve acute urethral obstructions. Permanent cystostomy may be performed in cases of neurogenic bladder atony or bladder cancer.