Invasive Cereal Aphids of North America: Ecology and Pest Management.
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Aphid invasions of North American cereal crops generally have started with colonization of a new region or crop, followed by range expansion and outbreaks that vary in frequency and scale owing to geographically variable influences. To improve understanding of this process and management, we compare the invasion ecology of and management response to three cereal aphids: sugarcane aphid, Russian wheat aphid, and greenbug. The region exploited is determined primarily by climate and host plant availability. Once an area is permanently or annually colonized, outbreak intensity is also affected by natural enemies and managed inputs, such as aphid-resistant cultivars and insecticides. Over time, increases in natural enemy abundance and diversity, improved compatibility among management tactics, and limited threshold-based insecticide use have likely increased resilience of aphid regulation. Application of pest management foundational practices followed by a focus on compatible strategies are relevant worldwide. Area-wide pest management is most appropriate to large-scale cereal production systems, as exemplified in the Great Plains of North America.