Cardiovascular and metabolic responses during anoxic submergence in the bullfrog with and without maintained extracellular pH. Academic Article uri icon


  • We studied metabolic, cardiovascular, and electrolyte responses of paralyzed bullfrogs to 6 hours of submerged anoxia at 15 degrees C, either with or without maintenance of extracellular pH at preanoxic values by NaHCO3 infusion. There were no differences in arterial PCO2 between acidemic and nonacidemic groups. Lactate appearance in arterial blood, as an indicator of anaerobic metabolic rate, was not significantly different between the anoxic groups, although both were significantly elevated over control. Heart rate in both anoxic groups was similar and significantly lower than in control. During anoxia, both systolic and diastolic pressures fell, and the group with maintained pH fell further. Plasma calcium concentration decreased in both anoxic groups, but the fall was more severe in the group in which pH was controlled. Survival was lower in this group, with a rapid decline in survival after 4 hours of anoxia. We conclude that the fall in extracellular pH seen during anoxia has a protective effect on cardiovascular function that may be partially due to maintenance of relatively high extracellular calcium levels.

published proceedings

  • J Exp Zool

author list (cited authors)

  • Warburton, S. J., Wasser, J. S., & Jackson, D. C

citation count

  • 4

publication date

  • January 1989