Biophysical Parameters of the Sec14 Phospholipid Exchange Cycle
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Sec14, the major yeast phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein (PITP), coordinates PC and PI metabolism to facilitate an appropriate and essential lipid signaling environment for membrane trafficking from trans-Golgi membranes. The Sec14 PI/PC exchange cycle is essential for its essential biological activity, but fundamental aspects of how this PITP executes its lipid transfer cycle remain unknown. To address some of these outstanding issues, we applied time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering for the determination of protein-mediated intervesicular movement of deuterated and hydrogenated phospholipids in vitro. Quantitative analysis by small-angle neutron scattering revealed that Sec14 PI- and PC-exchange activities were sensitive to both the lipid composition and curvature of membranes. Moreover, we report that these two parameters regulate lipid exchange activity via distinct mechanisms. Increased membrane curvature promoted both membrane binding and lipid exchange properties of Sec14, indicating that this PITP preferentially acts on the membrane site with a convexly curved face. This biophysical property likely constitutes part of a mechanism by which spatial specificity of Sec14 function is determined in cells. Finally, wild-type Sec14, but not a mixture of Sec14 proteins specifically deficient in either PC- or PI-binding activity, was able to effect a net transfer of PI or PC down opposing concentration gradients in vitro.
author list (cited authors)
Sugiura, T., Takahashi, C., Chuma, Y., Fukuda, M., Yamada, M., Yoshida, U., ... Nakano, M.