Effects of combined viral-bacterial challenge with or without supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079 on immune upregulation and DMI in beef heifers
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Objectives were to determine whether live yeast (LY) supplementation would affect daily dry matter feed intake, body weight (BW), immune, and febrile responses to a viral-bacterial (VB) respiratory challenge. Crossbred heifers (N = 38, BW = 230 ± 16.4 kg) were allocated into a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement: Factor 1 = roughage-based diet with or without LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079, 62.5 g/hd/d), Factor 2 = VB, intranasal administration of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1, 2 ×108, PFU) on day 0 and endobronchial inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytica (5.4 × 1010, CFU) on day 3, or intranasal saline administration followed by inoculation with phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Heifers were fed their respective diets for 27 d prior to VB challenge on day 0. Heifers were housed by treatment and group-fed using electronic feedbunks. Thermo-boluses (Medria; Châteaubourg, FR) measured rumen temperature (RUT) at 5-min intervals and rectal temperature and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 3 to 8, 10, 13, and 15. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in the mixed procedure of SAS with fixed effects of day, diet, inoculation, and their interactions. Animals fed LY exhibited a 16% increase (P = 0.02) in neutrophils relative to CON. Diet × inoculation × day interactions were detected for monocytes and haptoglobin. The VB-LY had the greatest (P < 0.05) concentration of monocytes on day 4, followed by VB-CON which was greater (P < 0.05) than PBS treatments. Haptoglobin concentration was greatest (P < 0.02) for VB-CON on day 5, followed by VB-LY which was greater (P < 0.05) than PBS. Heifers supplemented with LY had less (P < 0.05) haptoglobin production than CON. The VB challenge produced nasal lesions that increased (P < 0.01) with day, reaching a zenith on day 6 with 70% of the nares covered with plaques, and increased (P < 0.05) neutrophils on days 3 to 5. The VB challenge increased RUT (P < 0.05) days 2 to 7 and rectal temperature (P < 0.05) on days 0 and 3 to 6. The increased rectal temperature on day 0 was likely due to increased ambient temperature at time of challenge, as VB heifers were processed after the PBS heifers to avoid contamination. The VB challenge was effective at stimulating immune responses, and RUT was effective for measuring febrile responses. These results indicate that prior LY supplementation altered the leukogram in response to VB challenge, suggestive of increased innate immune response.
author list (cited authors)
Kayser, W. C., Carstens, G. E., Washburn, K. E., Welsh, T. H., Lawhon, S. D., Reddy, S. M., ... Skidmore, A. L.