Projected air quality and health benefits from future policy interventions in India
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Air pollutants have been an urgent environmental problem in India due to adverse impacts on human health and social-economical lost. Different control strategies have been discussed to reduce air pollution, but possible outputs have not been identified. In this study, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to simulate potential benefits from future emission control with unchanged meteorology. Fourteen scenarios towards energy, residential, agriculture, industry, and open burning were simulated and the changes in ozone (O3) and PM2.5 as well as health outcomes were evaluated. PM2.5 concentrations decreased significantly by reducing uses of solid fuels (S4), uses of diesel generating sets (S13) and applying new standards to industry facilities (S11) with maximum reductions of ∼50 μg/m3, ∼30 μg/m3 and ∼15 μg/m3 in north India, separately. Reducing uses of solid fuels caused significant O3 reduction by maximum >8 ppb (S4, December), significant effects also occurred when applying new standards to current power plants (S1) (∼4 ppb, October.) and in S13 (∼3 ppb, December). Combination of all possible strategies would reduce O3 primary PM components (PPM) and total PM2.5 in December by >20 ppb, >40 μg/m3 and >60 μg/m3 in north India, while O3 and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) would increase by 5 ppb and 2 μg/m3 in October in western and southern India. SIA also increased in part of northern regions in December by ∼2 μg/m3. A total of up to 0.68 million premature mortality and 43% years of life lost (YLL) would be avoided by applying all controlling strategies.
author list (cited authors)
Chen, K., Guo, H., Hu, J., Kota, S., Deng, W., Ying, Q. i., ... Zhang, H.