The authors examined how racial matching between older patients and physicians relates to effectiveness of care, use of services, and satisfaction with care. In this cross-sectional, community-based cohort study, 2,867 elderly African American and White North Carolina residents with regular physicians were interviewed and screened for hypertension (HBP). African Americans were more likely than Whites to be told they had HBP, to receive HBP medication, and to take it regardless of their physicians race. White elders with African American physicians were more likely to report that they delayed care quite often. African American elders were less likely to delay care quite often, regardless of their physicians race. These results did not support the position that African Americans require treatment by African American physicians to achieve better care. Although elders of both races who had African American physicians were less satisfied with care received, interpretation of this finding is difficult without better measurement of patient satisfaction.