A pictorial view of the three-dimensional representation and comparative two-dimensional image orientation derived from computed tomography angiography in a dog with a patent ductus arteriosus Academic Article uri icon


  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion is one of the more common cardiovascular procedures performed in dogs. Two-dimensional imaging has been the primary method of visualizing the PDA and is the basis of its morphologic description. Transesophageal echocardiographic imaging has further characterized the three-dimensional (3D) variation in ductal morphology and shape (circle, oval). An accurate assessment of the shape and dimensions of a PDA in an individual dog is important when making decisions about definitive closure. Ductal measurements from angiography and echocardiography have not been found to be interchangeable, likely related in part to the static two-dimensional measurement of a 3D structure. We describe the use of computed tomography angiography (CTA) images imported into three software programs as a tool to provide 3D information about PDA anatomy including a comparison to images obtained from classic two-dimensional imaging modalities. These images provide an example of thorax and heart position related to transducer position and the orientation of image acquisition to demonstrate why measurements do not always compare. Additionally, 3D images are useful as a training tool and in the development of devices and training opportunities. Multidimensional imaging provides a unique representation of the 3D anatomical structure of the ductus arteriosus as displayed in these images from a dog with a PDA.

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Saunders, A. B., Doocy, K. R., & Birch, S. A.

citation count

  • 1

publication date

  • February 2019