Life cycle recurrent embodied energy calculation of buildings: A review
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Buildings use approximately 48% of global energy each year in their construction and operation as embodied and operating energy. The embodied energy is used directly through onsite and offsite construction and related processes, and indirectly through the use of materials and equipment. The embodied energy used in a building's construction is called initial embodied energy (IEE), whereas the energy embodied in the recurring processes of maintenance, repair, and replacement is termed recurrent embodied energy (REE). To effectively optimize a building's life cycle embodied energy, both the REE and IEE must be evaluated collectively. However, a building's REE depends on multiple parameters, which can cause significant variations of REE results across studies. A thorough investigation of parameters specific to REE calculation is currently lacking. The REE parameters may introduce significant uncertainties in the life cycle embodied energy calculations. In this paper, we perform a systematic review of literature to identify key parameters affecting REE calculations. We also propose a framework to identify and quantify the uncertainties resulting from these parameters. The findings of this study will help streamline the process of life cycle embodied energy calculation.
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