Effects of Mannheimia haemolytica challenge with or without supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079 on immune upregulation and behavior in beef steers.
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Objectives of this experiment were to examine the effects of live yeast (LY) supplementation on immunological, physiological, and behavioral responses in steers experimentally challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH). Thirty-six crossbred Angus steers (BW = 352 23 kg) seronegative for MH were allocated within a 2 2 factorial arrangement: Factor 1 = roughage-based diet with LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079, 25 gper steer daily) or negative control (CON). Factor 2 = bronchoselective endoscopic inoculation with MH or phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Steers were fed their respective diets for 28 d prior to MH challenge on day 0. Reticulo-rumen temperature (RUT; ThermoBolus, Medria) was measured continuously at 5-min intervals and rectal temperature on days -4, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 relative to MH inoculation. Compared with PBS-treated steers, the steers inoculated with MH had increased (P < 0.05) RUT from 2 to 24 h, reaching a zenith (>41 C) 9 to 11 h post-MH challenge, whereas rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.04) in MH-inoculated steers on day 1 post-MH challenge. Supplementation with LY increased (P < 0.05) rectal temperature on days 0, 7, and 10, relative to CON steers. There were inoculation x day interactions (P < 0.01) for lymphocyte, neutrophil, leukocyte, and haptoglobin concentrations. Steers challenged with MH had increased (P < 0.05) neutrophil concentration from days 1 to 3, leukocyte concentration on days 1 and 2 and haptoglobin concentration on days 1 to 5 post-MH challenge compared with PBS-treated steers. Steers supplemented with LY exhibited increased (P < 0.02) cortisol throughout the study compared with the CON treatment. Following inoculation, MH-challenged steers exhibited reduced (P < 0.05) DMI, eating rate, frequency, and duration of bunk visit (BV) events compared with PBS-treated steers. Results from this study demonstrate that the experimental challenge model effectively stimulated acute-immune responses and behavioral changes that are synonymous with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, supplementation with LY minimally altered the impact of the MH challenge on physiological and behavioral responses in this study. Continuously measured RUT was more sensitive at detecting febrile responses to MH challenge than rectal temperature. These results serve to guide future research on behavioral and physiological alterations exhibited during a BRD infection.