Real-time insight into the doping mechanism of redox-active organic radical polymers. Academic Article uri icon


  • Organic radical polymers for batteries represent some of the fastest-charging redox active materials available. Electron transport and charge storage must be accompanied by ion transport and doping for charge neutrality, but the nature of this process in organic radical polymers is not well understood. This is difficult to intuitively predict because the pendant radical group distinguishes organic radical polymers from conjugated, charged or polar polymers. Here we show for the first time a quantitative view of in situ ion transport and doping in organic radical polymers during the redox process. Two modes dominate: doping by lithium ion expulsion and doping by anion uptake. The dominance of one mode over the other is controlled by anion type, electrolyte concentration and timescale. These results apply in any scenario in which electrolyte is in contact with a non-conjugated redox active polymer and present a means of quantifying doping effects.

published proceedings

  • Nat Mater

altmetric score

  • 60.154

author list (cited authors)

  • Wang, S., Li, F., Easley, A. D., & Lutkenhaus, J. L.

citation count

  • 106

complete list of authors

  • Wang, Shaoyang||Li, Fei||Easley, Alexandra D||Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

publication date

  • January 2019