Ghrelin Signaling in Immunometabolism and Inflamm-Aging
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Intracellular changes in immune cells lead to metabolic dysfunction, which is termed immunometabolism. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of aging; this phenomenon is described as inflamm-aging. Immunometabolism and inflamm-aging are closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, and cancers, which consequently reduce life span and health span of the elderly. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates appetite and food intake. Ghrelin's functions are mediated through its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin and GHS-R have important roles in age-associated obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D. In this chapter, we have discussed the roles of ghrelin signaling in diet-induced obesity and normal aging as it relates to energy metabolism and inflammation in key metabolic tissues and organs. The new findings reveal that ghrelin signaling is an important regulatory mechanism for immunometabolism and inflamm-aging. Ghrelin signaling offers an exciting novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance of the elderly.
author list (cited authors)
Fang, C., Xu, H., Guo, S., Mertens-Talcott, S. U., & Sun, Y.