Pre-Clovis projectile points at the Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas-Implications for the Late Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Academic Article uri icon


  • Lanceolate projectile points of the Clovis complex and stemmed projectile points of the Western Stemmed Tradition first appeared in North America by ~13 thousand years (ka) ago. The origin, age, and chronological superposition of these stemmed and lanceolate traditions are unclear. At the Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas, below Folsom and Clovis horizons, we find stemmed projectile points dating from ~13.5 to ~15.5 ka ago, with a triangular lanceolate point form appearing ~14 ka ago. The sequential relationship of stemmed projectile points followed by lanceolate forms suggests that lanceolate points are derived from stemmed forms or that they originated from two separate migrations into the Americas.

published proceedings

  • Sci Adv

altmetric score

  • 616.852

author list (cited authors)

  • Waters, M. R., Keene, J. L., Forman, S. L., Prewitt, E. R., Carlson, D. L., & Wiederhold, J. E.

citation count

  • 52

complete list of authors

  • Waters, Michael R||Keene, Joshua L||Forman, Steven L||Prewitt, Elton R||Carlson, David L||Wiederhold, James E

publication date

  • October 2018